Thursday, July 2, 2009


Gandhi & Art

Raman P.Sinha

“...there are so many superstitions rife about me that it has now become almost impossible for me to overtake those who have been spreading them. As a result, my friends’ only reaction is almost invariably a smile when I claim I am an artist myself.”1

What Gandhi said to Dilip Kumar Roy in above quotation is still prevalent. The reaction as smile has not changed as yet since we hardly talk Gandhi in relation to Art(forget about talking Gandhi as an Artist) though it could be discussed in so many ways—for example we can probe into Gandhian Aesthetics; I mean what Gandhi thought about Beauty and Art, what was his idea about literature, painting, music etc.; we can also analyze those works of films, plays, painting, music, sculpture, literature where Gandhi and Gandhism is the subject; It is also worth focusing Gandhi as litterateur and as a translator as his writing runs through hundred of volumes in Gujarati and English.

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Gandhian Aesthetics: The Aesthetics of Satyagraha

Truth is Beauty

In Young India dated 23.03.1921, Gandhi wrote Satyagraha is literally holding on to Truth and it means, therefore, Truth-force. Truth is soul or spirit. It is, therefore, known as soul force.2 In some other place he proclaimed that “I see and find beauty in Truth or through Truth. All truth, not merely true ideas, but truthful faces, truthful pictures, or songs, are highly beautiful….Truth may manifest itself in forms which may not be outwardly beautiful at all.Socrates,we are told, was the most truthful man of his time and yet his features are said to have been the ugliest in Greece. To my mind, he was beautiful because all his life was a striving after Truth, and you may remember that his outward form did not prevent Phidias from appreciating the beauty of Truth in him, though as an artist he was accustomed to see Beauty in outward forms also.”3Here Gandhi stresses the dichotomy of content and form and takes side of the content but later he equates form with immorality:

“Take Oscar Wilde. I can speak of him, as I was in England at the time he was being much discussed and talked about…Wilde saw the highest Art simply in outward forms and, therefore, succeeded in beautifying immorality.”4 The natural corollary of beautifying immorality is the formula:’ Art for Art’s sake’ and Gandhi vehemently opposes it: “People who claim to pursue ‘art for art’s sake’ are unable to make good their claim. …art can only be a means to the end which we must all of us achieve.”5On Gandhi’s statement that ’Truth is God’, Romain Rolland commented that” it appears to me that it lacks one important attribute of God: joy. For—and on this I insist--I recognize no God without joy”; Gandhi replied that he did not distinguish between art and truth. “I am against the formula, “Art for Art’s sake”. For me, all art must be based on the truth. I reject beautiful things if, instead of expressing truth, they express untruth…To achieve truth in art I do not expect exact reproductions of external things. Only living things bring living joy to the soul and must elevate the soul.”6 Here, it seems that Gandhi was not only aware of the Imitation Theory of Plato and Aristotle and certainly he was in favour of Aristotle who, unlike Plato conceptualized imitation as feigning that,which is beyond the literal verisimilitude;7 but also deeply conscious of the fact what he proclaimed elsewhere that “Truth and untruth often co-exist; good and evil are often found together. In an artist also, not seldom the right perception of things and the wrong co-exist. Truly beautiful creations come when right perception is at work. If these moments are rare in life, they are also rare in Art”.8 This is a rare insight from a satyagrahi, for whom life and art were not two distinct entities but one as he said once “For to me the greatest artist is surely he who lives the finest life.”9 It reminds us the great saying of Greek theoretician Longinus that great writing is the echo of a noble mind.10 Certainly this is against the modernist theorem of impersonality where life and art is not considered one but Gandhi emphatically argues that “we have somehow accustomed ourselves to the belief that art is independent of the purity of private life. I can say with all the experience at my command that nothing could be more untrue. As I am nearing the end of my earthly life, I can say that purity of life is the highest and truest art. The art of producing good music from a cultivated voice can be achieved by many, but the art of producing that music from the harmony of a pure life is achieved very rarely.”11 In short, this is what Sachchidanand means. Gandhi explained this term to Rolland by saying sat means truth chitt means live & real knowledge and anand means transcendental pleasure.12


What is Useful is beautiful: Gandhi once remarked that “why can’t you see the beauty of colour in vegetables?”13 And again in other place he concluded that “Beauty divorced from utility is inconceivable”14.For him utility in art means leading a man “one step forward on the path of morality and gives him elevated views.”15


Generally Art is discussed either with the reference of Nature or Culture. Nature is given whereas Culture is constructed. If we see Art as Nature; we tend to evaluate it as a natural object whereas Art as Culture expects to be treated as an artifact. Gandhi mostly perceives Art as Nature that’s the reason he makes parallel between the two:” To me art, in order to be truly great, must, like the beauty of Nature, be universal in its appeal….It must be simple in its presentation and direct in its expression like the language of Nature.”16No wonder when he was asked why he is so much against specialization he posed a counter question, “why don’t you look the plain fact in the face that Nature, which must be the last inspiration of all real arts, never stints? She never specializes in a way so that only the cultured few may enjoy her bounties leaving the vast majority out in the cold.”17 In other place he asks,” could one conceive of any painting comparable in inspiration to that of the star-studded sky, the majestic sea, the noble mountains? Is there a painter’s colour comparable to the vermillion of an emergent dawn or the gold of a parting day? No, my friend, I need no inspiration other than Nature’s. She has never failed me yet: she mystifies me, bewilders me, sends me into ecstasies. What need have I for the childish colour-schemes of humans?”18 Here Gandhi reminds us of Plato’s idea of art as imitation.19 But when it comes to the music Gandhi responds differently as he says: “To me music is something to receive joy and inspiration from.” and reminisces by saying that “how well I remember, the joy and peace and comfort that music used to give me when I was ailing in a South African hospital. I was then recovering from some hurts I had received at the hands of some roughs who had been engaged to cripple me—thanks to the growing success of my passive Resistance Campaign. At my request the daughter of a friend of mine used, very often, to sing to me the famous hymn,’ lead Kindly Light’. And how it acted like a healing balm—invariably! I still remember this song with gratitude.”20 No wonder music and prayer became the integral part of his well structured daily chores and scheme of things that he never missed even on busy schedule of his foreign trips. Here is Louis Fischer reporting Gandhi’s stay with Romain Rolland in Switzerland after returning from Round Table Conference at London in dec’1931:“The last evening Gandhi asked Rolland to play some Beethoven. Rolland played the Andante from the fifth symphony and, as an encore of his own accord, Gluck’s ’Elysian Fields’.The theme of the Fifth Symphony is considered to be man’s struggle with fate, man’s harmony with fate, the brotherhood of man. The second movement, the Andante, is melodious and suffused with tender lyrical emotions, quiet nobility and optimism. Rolland chose it because it came closet to his concept of Gandhi’s personality. It is gentle and loving. In the Gluck piece one almost hears the angels singing to the strains of the flute. It is celestial music, full of purity and clarity. The Gita might be set to it.”21 This incidence was noted by Rolland himself in his diary that Gandhi specifically wanted him to play Beethoven in whatever he played and after performance when asked to comment on his piece he laughed—a laughter of naughtiness and straightforwardness and said,’ when everyone is saying good then it must be good’. 22 In fact, Gandhi pleaded several times that he prefers the art and literature that can speak to the millions. Certainly, Gandhi was all for ‘communication’ and not for ‘expression’ in Art. Citing the example of Dean Farrar’ book on the life of Christ he reported that the writer had read “everything about Jesus in the English language, and then he went to Palestine, saw every place and spot in the Bible that he could identify, and then wrote the book in faith and prayer, for the masses in England, in a language which all of them could understand. It is not in Dr. Johnson’s style but in the easy style of Dickens. Have we men like Farrar who will produce great literature for the village folk? Our literary men will pore on Kalidas and Bhavbhuti and English authors, and will give us imitations. I want them to go to villages, study them and give something life-giving…I want art and literature that can speak to the millions.”23Gandhi always maintained that since we don’t need an interpreter to enjoy the panoramic view of nature—the colour and feel of sunrise, the tranquil temper of the sunset or the cooling breeze of spring as it is communicated directly without any aid so he asks,” Why should I need an artist to explain a work of art to me? Why should it not speak out to me itself? I saw in the Vatican art-collection a statue of Christ on the cross which simply captured me and kept me spell-bound. I saw it five years ago but it is still before me. In Belur in Mysore, I saw in the ancient temple a bracket in stone made of a little statuette, which spoke out to me without any one to help me to understand it. It was just a woman, half-naked, struggling with the folds of her clothes to extricate herself from the shafts of cupid, who is after all lying defeated at her feet in the shape of a scorpion. I could see the agony on the form—the agony of the stings of the scorpion.24

In the context of Gandhi’s proposition of nature-like Art and its easy communicability, we can contemplate into one of the illustration that Tagore had cited in a debate with Gandhi: “I am in search of a vina player. I have tried East and I have tried West, but have not found the man of my quest. They are all experts, they can make the strings resound to a degree, they command high prices, but for all their wonderful execution they can strike no chord in my heart. At last I came across one whose very first notes melt away the sense of oppression within. In him is the fire of the Shakti of joy which can light up all other hearts by its touch. His appeal to me is instant and I hail him as Master. I then want a vina made. For this,ofcourse are required all kind of material and a different kind of science.If,finding me to be lacking in the means my master should be moved to pity and say:” Never mind, my son do not go to the expense in workmanship and time which a vina will require. Take rather this simple string tightened across a piece of wood and practice on it. In a short time you will find it to be as good as a vina.” Would that do? I am afraid not.”25

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Gandhi & Gandhism as Art-Subject

Gandhi and Gandhism has been explained, represented and interpreted, over the years, through various art-forms---in film, theatre, music, painting, sculpture, literature and what not, even in parodies and computer games. By any account, it is a huge body of work that can be dealt here, (knowing the limitations of an article) of course, quite selectively. First of all, let us start with films.

Gandhi in Films

Gandhi was first portrayed in a British film called ‘Nine Hours to Rama’(1963).This film was based on the work of a History Professor at the University of California, Mr. Stanley Wolpert. The film depicted the nine hours in the life of Nathuram Godse that lead up to Gandhi ji’s assassination. Starring J.S.Casshyap as Gandhi, Horst Buchholz as Godse, Jairaj as G.D.Birla, Basdeo Pandey, (who later became Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago) in a minor role and filmed almost entirely on location in India, this film was directed and produced by Mark Robson. The high point of the film was its ability to capture the tension and drama of the historical situation and resonance of a great human tragedy through soulful score of Malcom Arnold.

The second important venture in which Gandhi was portrayed most completely to that date was Richard Attenborough’s Gandhi (1982).Starring Ben Kingsley as Gandhi, Rohini Hattangadi as Kasturba Gandhi, Roshan Seth as Jawaharlal Nehru, Saeed Jaffrey as Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Alyque Padamsee as Jinnah and Written by John Briley, music composed by Ravi Shankar and George Fenton, this 188 minutes long film was a real spectacle costing $22,000,000.It turned out to be a huge success as it won eight Academy Awards, besides awards from BAFTA, National Board of Review and Golden Globes. Generally this film is considered to be historically correct but as far as the portrayal of the protagonist is concerned it was suggested from some quarters that Gandhi is over- idealized here and it is simply hagiography.26But approach of the film was quite clear from the very beginning as it opened with these words: “No man's life can be encompassed in one telling... least of all Gandhi's, whose passage through life was so entwined with his nation's struggle for freedom. There is no way to give each event its allotted weight, to recount the deeds and sacrifices of all the great men and women to whom he and India owe such immense debts. What can be done is to be faithful in spirit to the record of his journey, and to try to find one's way to the heart of the man...”Mostly the film justifies its opening claim though it can be argued as to how far the western-realist mode of the film and its flamboyant grand style is suitable for a subject like ‘Gandhi’. Keeping this view in mind, noted Indian director Shyam Benegal had made a film titled ‘The Making of the Mahatma’ in 1996 on Gandhi ji’s twenty one years life in South Africa. Based on Fatima Meer’s book ’The Apprenticeship of a Mahatma’ this film was a joint venture of NFDC India and SABC OF South Africa. Starring Rajit Kapur as Gandhi, Pallavi Joshi as Kasturba and Shot in actual locations of South Africa where Gandhi actually lived, including his old home at Loop Street; this 144 minutes long film succeeded to capture the very essence and process of becoming of a nineteen year old shy, timid advocate to an ever-growing, evolved person of forty.

Apart from these three above-mentioned films, Gandhi had also been portrayed in the films where his contemporaries are the main protagonists like M.A.Jinnah (‘Jinnah’ 1998 dir.Jamil Dehlavi,Sam Dastor as Gandhi),Vallabhbhai patel (‘Sardar’, 1993,dir.Ketan Mehta, Anu Kapur as Gandhi),vinayak Damodar savarkar (‘Veer Savarkar’2001,dir.Ved Rahi, Surendra Rajan as Gandhi),Baba Sahib Ambedkar (‘Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar’,2000, dir. Jabbar Patel, Mohan Gokhle as Gandhi) and Subhash Chandra Bose (‘Neta Ji Subhash Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero ’2005,dir.Shyam Benegal, Surendra Rajan as Gandhi).These films deserve separate elaboration but One thing can be emphasized here about these films is their inability to justify the protagonist’s historical space in relation to Gandhi. Some films, like Hey Ram (dir.Kamal Hasan, 2000, Nasseruddin Shah as Gandhi), Water (dir.Deepa Mehta, 2005, Mohan jhangiani as Gandhi), Lage Raho Munnabhai (dir.Rajkumar Hirani, 2006, Dilip Prabhavalkar as Gandhi),were also made where Gandhi appeared briefly or film like Gandhi, My Father, based on the work of Chandulal Bhagubhai Dalal’s Harilal Gandhi: A Life (dir.Feroz Abbas Khan, 2007, Darshan Jariwala as Gandhi) probes some less known, unexplored aspects of interpersonal relationship of Gandhi.Jahnu Barua’s Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara(2005) and Ketan Mehta’s Mangal Pandey:The Rising(2005) uses some real footage of Gandhi for the purpose of story and its authenticity.

Gandhism in Films

It is difficult to differentiate Gandhi from Gandhism as Gandhi himself once famously remarked that his life is his message; but it is true that some films were made in which Gandhi was not portrayed but some components of Gandhism were dealt with. It could be debatable to trace some Gandhian influence in films like Achhut Kanya (1936) of Franz Osten (1876-1956), or Dunia Na Mane (1937) and Dr.Kotnis ki Amar Kahani (1946) of V.Shantaram (1901-90);but it may be safely argued that socially relevant films made in the 40s and early fifties certainly had some Gandhian tinge in it. The relevance of Gandhism or rather lack of it for our contemporary Indian society is being hotly discussed. Ashutosh Gowariker’s Swadesh (2004) opens with these words of Gandhi: ”Hesitating to act because the whole vision might not be achieved, or because others do not yet share it, is an attitude that only hinders progress.” It is said that the film director was inspired by the Rajni Bakshi’s book ‘Bapu Kuti’ through which he came to know about the story of Arvind Pillalamarri and Ravi Kuchimanchi, the NRI couple who returned to India to develop the pedal power generator for impoverished rural sector. Tushar Gandhi has rightly pointed out that,” The film epitomizes Gandhi’s value. Unfortunately it was like a documentary. It didn’t get the box office success it deserved. It should’ve been less sermonizing, more humorous. I told Gowariker that “Swadesh”should be shown in every educational institution.”27The same way Jahnu Barua has examined the lack of interest or apathy towards Gandhism in our society in the film ‘Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara’ (2005).But the film that has redefined the term Gandhism and acquired wide popularity was Raj Kumar Hirani’s 2006 venture ‘Lage Raho Munnabhai’. Not only for its neologism ‘Gandhigiri’ but its queer and in some way very innovative mixing of comedy with Gandhian praxis has made this film quite a cult and controversial. That’s why if it was criticized by saying that this “film trivializes Gandhi”28 and”Gandhian philosophy is serious business and Lage Raho Munna Bhai is not the right way to show it.”29; it was also hailed as ’never-done-before’ kind of film:“True, there have been memorable films on Mahatma Gandhi by distinguished directors, namely Richard Attenborough and Shyam Benegal; one offering a respectful cinematic acquaintance and the other being didactic but inspiring. For all their earnestness, neither film stirred the popular imagination like LRM has done now.”30

Gandhi on Stage

Portraying Gandhi on stage, comparing to celluloid is a recent phenomenon. In 1995, Feroz Abbas Khan staged the “Gandhi Virudh Gandhi” in Mumbai. This play was based on Dinkar Joshi’s Guajarati Novel ‘Prakashno Padchayo’ (Shadows of Light) in which the troubled relationship of Gandhi with his elder son Harilal was explored. This was an effort to understand Gandhi not in the realm of Politics but in his private sphere. The play was staged in Marathi, Gujarati, Hindi and English (in English, titled Mahatma vs. Gandhi) and got rave reviews. As Gandhi, in different productions, Atul Kulkarni, Boman Irani and Nasseruddin Shah were able to delve deep into the psyche of a father who had constantly been encroached upon his private and public domain. The play was staged successfully across the country.

Next year, in Jan ’1996 Gandhi was presented in shadow puppetry. Commissioned by Sangeet Natak Akademi and Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, three important episodes of Gandhi’s life---train episode of South Africa, Dandi march and swadeshi andolan were chosen by puppeteer Murugan Rao of Tamil Nadu to depict in the National Shadow Puppetry Festival at Dharmasthala, Karnataka. But as Salil Singh has reported, “Puppeteers in whose hands shadows of mythical heroes had danced and cavorted, accompanied by passionate songs and cascading music, suddenly found themselves struggling awkwardly with bland images of a national hero, uninspired and uninspiring. They tried valiantly to fulfill their commission, yet it was apparent that the “experiment” was revealing only the futility of this attempt to take this traditional art “forward.”31

One controversial play that was produced on stage was Pradeep Dalvi’s Gujarati play ‘Mee Nathuram Godse Boltoi’ in 1997; after the Maharashtra government’s refusal for its show in 1989.This play justifies the godse’s action of killing as Gandhi was shown responsible for the partition of the country. It was a highly volatile and condemnable issue; no wonder after six shows it was banned but again permitted in 2002.Creating antithetical situation or anti-hero is a theatrical ploy but outright justification of an objectionable action (i.e. murder) reduces it to the level of propaganda. In this way, the play ‘Gandhi-Ambedkar’ (1997) by Premanand Gajvi has more potentiality. Directed by Chetan Datar and acted by Mangesh Bhide as Gandhi and Kishore Kadam as Ambedkar, the play tried to highlight the difference of opinions of two great souls, especially in the context of cast issue. Though the play is tilted towards Ambedkar it does not vandalize Gandhi either. It got some critical acclaim.

Reacting to the over-critical portrayal of Gandhi, some production started strengthening the proto-typical image of him. ‘Mahadevbhai’ (2002) is one such play that was based on the diary of Gandhi’s secretary Mahadev Desai. Directed by Ramu Ramanathan, this play narrates the diary, effectively done by Jamini Pathak and in the course of it, throws light on some of the well known, positive facts of mahatma’s life. The play was staged across the country.

In 2005, a newly established Primetime Theatre Company, Mumbai had staged a two-act play of Pratap Sharma titled, ‘Sammy! A Word that Broke an Empire’. The play was directed by Lillete Dube and Gandhi was enacted by Joy sengupta (young Gandhi) and Ravi Dube (Mahatma Gandhi).This play is two hour long and covers a long span of Gandhi’s life—from South African days to last days, so consequently it is fast-paced and episodical. Although it does not go very deep into the psyche of the transformation of Gandhi to Mahatma, nevertheless it makes the text of Gandhism communicable to the youth and ‘uninitiated.’ After its premier at Tata Theatre NCPA, Mumbai on 30th July’2005 it was staged across the country and all over the world successfully.

In 2006, Mohan Maharishi presented Gandhi in a less-explored form in India called documentary theatre or docu-drama. This was the form that was mainly popularized by Heiner-Muller in the west, but Mohan Maharishi has used it bit differently, as he clarified later,” I could have, like Heiner-Muller, changed the facts of history and staged a very fictitious play. It was very tempting to do that. However, after my extensive research on the letters between Gandhi and Nehru, I have stuck to the facts.”32 Based on twenty two letters exchanged between Gandhi and Nehru, over the period of 21 years(1927-48),this innovative venture ,’Dear Bapu’ tried to capture the essence of one of the most turbulent period of our national history. Under the auspice of Vikram Sarabhai Foundation, the play was enacted in one hour forty five minutes in English at India Habitat Centre, Delhi. To link the references of the letter and make a single dramatic structure the director had used Sabina Mehta as narrator, besides Bhaskar Ghosh as Gandhi and Sunit Tondon as Nehru. It is obvious that director had no desire for physical proximity in casting as he later elaborated: “All the words spoken in this play are of Gandhi and Nehru. But, Gandhi and Nehru are not impersonated here. There is Brechtian alienation. Ideas are important, not characters. I find it extremely annoying to enact Nehru, or, to impersonate or imitate Gandhi, because however good an actor one may be, as was Ben Kingsley in the film ‘Gandhi’, it does not help. The psycho-spiritual qualities of Gandhi’s personality were missing in Kingsley’s portrayal”33This is a point that could be debatable, nevertheless the performance made it convincing for such experimentation. Perhaps taking cue from it, M.K.Raina had staged ‘Stay Yet Awhile’ in 2007; based on the letters and debates between Gandhi and Tagore over the period of 1915to1941.This correspondence was compiled and edited by Prof.Sabyasachi Bhattacharya in a book titled ‘The Mahatma and the Poet’, in which he rightly pointed out that he “was struck by the significance of these letters in terms of the differing perceptions they had of major national issues, as well as the intimate light the letters throw upon the relationship between these two friends and adversaries in debate.”34 Apart from Gandhi (Dhruv Jagasia), and Tagore (Avijit Dutt) Raina has introduced Danish Hussain as sutradhar.The stage was designed in such a way that reading out of letters in the backdrop of documentary footages of national movement turned into a lively and interactive space. It was critically acclaimed and the show was repeated in various places across the country.

Gandhi in Parodies

The MTV cartoon ‘Clone High’ depicts the clone of Gandhi as one of the main characters. The Family Guy movie features a cutaway of a portrayed Gandhi unsuccessfully doing stand-up comedy at a club. The cartoon ‘Time Squad’ on Cartoon Network has an episode where Gandhi is portrayed as wanting to do tap dancing as a career, instead of leading India to independence. In the TV-show ‘Scrubs Dr.Cox’ constantly refers to Donald Faisons character as 'Gandhi'. A gun-toting Gandhi is shown briefly in a parody trailer for "Gandhi II" in the comedy movie UHF in which he is described as "No more Mr. Passive Resistance". Gandhi is referred in three episodes of the sitcom Seinfeld. In the second season episode called "The Chinese Restaurant," Elaine Benes asks Jerry "Did Gandhi get this crazy?!", after George Costanza becomes verbally aggressive when beaten to a pay phone. The following season, in the episode "The Suicide", Elaine wonders aloud what Gandhi must have eaten before he fasted. Jerry responds "Oh, yeah. Gandhi loved Triscuits." The final reference to Gandhi comes in the Show's 4th season in the episode "The Old Man", when Elaine visits an old woman, Mrs. Oliver, played by Edie McClurg, who claims to have had an "affair with Mohandas." Mrs. Oliver recounts "Oh...the passion! and proceeds to show a picture of her with Gandhi to Elaine. In ‘The Simpsons’ episode ‘Mountain of MadnessMontgomery Burns hallucinates seeing Homer Simpson conspiring against him with Mahatma Gandhi and other historical characters. Also the episode ‘Homer and Apu’ reveals Apu has a unique prayer said prior to eating: Good rice, good curry, good Gandhi, let's hurry. In South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut, during the scene where Kenny goes to hell, Gandhi is one of the ghosts seen speaking to Kenny (along with George Burns and Adolf Hitler). In Jiminy Glick in LaLaWood Jimini is seen viewing the movie "Growing up Gandhi" which depicts Gandhi as a boxer in his younger days, at the Toranto film festiville. The stop-motion animated series Robot Chicken has Gandhi saving Benjamin Franklin from the Wright Brothers in the skit "Educational Wrestling Federation" (Parody of WWE), . In a monologue, Robin Williams jokingly suggested that there should be a clothing brand called Gandhi jeans (sizes 1 and below). The Warner Bros. cartoon ‘Bugs Bunny Rides Again’ originally featured Yosemite Sam calling himself "The roughest, toughest, he-man stuffest hombre as ever crossed the Rio Grande -- and I don't mean Mahatma Gand-ee!" However, due to Gandhi's assassination, Mel Blanc later changed the second half of the line to "I ain't no namby-pamby!", and it has remained such ever since.35

Gandhi in Computer games

Gandhi has been casted in the video game series ‘Civilization’, as a lone leader of the Indian Civilization. He has appeared in the first three games as a lone Civilization leader, but in ‘Civilization IV’, he has been shown alongside Asoka. In Celebrity Deathmatch, Gandhi is casted opposite Changej Khan.

Gandhi in Music

Musicians all over the world had tried to capture the essence of Gandhi or Gandhi’s idea in different forms. In India Some great classical singers had composed new Ragas on Gandhi like ‘Gandhi Bilaval’ by Allauddin Khan, ‘Mohan Kauns’ by Ravi Shankar, ‘Mohan Gandhi’ by Bala Murlikrishna, ’Gandhi Malhar’ by Kumar Gandharva, and ‘Bapu Kauns’ by Amjad Ali Khan. These ragas are meant to reflect upon the personality or ideas of Gandhi in musical terms; in this way, each raga is an individual interpretation of Gandhi or Gandhism.

In west Philip Glass had tried to capture the essence of Gandhian Satyagraha in an opera form. It is a three act opera comprising orchestra, chorus and soloists, composed by Philip Glass, with a libretto by Glass and Constance de Jong. It was commissioned by the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, and was first performed at the Municipal Theatre there on 5th Sept.’1980 by the Netherlands Opera and the Utrecht Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Christopher Keene. Later it was performed in UK, USA and West Germany.36

On the occasion of 60th death anniversary of Gandhi (January 30th, 2008) a new Dutch Musical was performed in the Amstelveen Theatre, named Gandhi. In fact the Musical was outcome of cooperation between several producers, the Gandhiserve Foundation in Berlin, the theatre of Amstelveen and Amstelveen College.

There is also some other kind of music, especially in the realm of popular music that was created all over the world, remembering Gandhi or under the influence of Gandhism like Bob Dylan: ‘They Killed Him’, Capitol Steps: ‘The Gandhi Man’, Pete Morton: Gandhi and Jesus, Silknoose: ‘Gandhi Tentacle Song’, Brian Spence: ‘Gandhi (We will write),’ ‘ Human: Mahatma’, Manhattan Gandhi: ‘Satyagraha’, Patti Smith: ‘Gandhi’, Marti Walker: ‘Compassion’, Bob Livingston: ‘M. Gandhi & Sitting Bull’, 1001 Ways: ‘Through my senses’, ‘Gandhi ‘(radio mix), Brian Boydell: ‘In Memoriam Mahatma Gandhi’, Barrage: ‘Mahatma’, Hufeisen: ‘Der Tempel’, Plume Latraverse: ‘La Ballade De Sandale Et Gandhi’, (French), Ange: ‘Et Gandhi l'indoux dit tout doux,’( French), Anju Bhatt: ‘Es pawan Gujarat ki dharti per’…, & others (Hindi) Mohammed Rafi: ;Suno suno ye Duniya Walo’, (Hindi), Aufwind: ‘Im Rad der Zeit’, ‘Harijan’, ‘Korrekt korrupt’, ‘Ahimsa’, ’Gut und Böse’, ‘Satyagraha’, ‘Mantra Mahatma’, (German), Howard Carpendale: ‘Gandhi’, (German), Bernd Stelter: ‘Mahatma’, (German), A Musica do oldodum: ‘Mahatma Olodum’, (Portuguese) and so on.

Gandhi in Painting

Gandhi is one of the most portrayed persons of 20th century although he always refused to sit or pose for artists. In his life-time, he was mostly portrayed by his contemporary artist, like Nandlal Bose (1882-1966), Ravishankar Raval (1892-1977),

Mukul Dey (1895-1989),Vinayak S.Masoji (1897-),Chaganlal Jadav (1903-1987),Kanu Desai(1907- ),Feliks Topolsky (1907-1989) and Dhiren Gandhi in the period between 1918 to 1948. When he returned from South Africa, the Santiniketan artist Mukul Dey, who was pioneer in introducing Dry points in India portrayed him in 1918 at Madras. Mukul Dey was on the trip to portray South-Indian greats, when he heard about Gandhi, who was not very known at that time in India. Mukul Dey reminisces,” My book Twelve Portraits had just come out at the end of 1917 and, with a view to making a collection of portraits of the great men of South India, I visited Madras in 1918. There I heard that a great leader of the Indians of South Africa had come to stay in Madras for a few days… Mrs. Naidu then introduced me to Gandhiji and told him of my errand. Gandhiji smiled sweetly at me, as if signifying his consent to my doing his portrait. He went on talking to the people in the room, while I busied myself with my pencil. I finished the portrait within an hour. Gandhiji looked at it and said, 'Do I really look like that? Of course I cannot see my face from that angle. Then he passed it round to the persons assembled there. At my request he put down the following words in Gujrati: Mohan Das Gandhi, Phagun Badi 3, Samvat 1975.37 In this pencil sketch Gandhi has a shikha (tuft of hair at the back of head) and very closely cropped hair. Two more time he portrayed Gandhi, one in 1928, at Sabarmati—four drypoints and few pencil sketches and again in 1945 at Puna, where he drowned Gandhi in pencil and crayon, pen and ink. Kanu Desai is also one of the earliest artists to portray Gandhi that was later published with an essay by Verrier Elwin in 1932, titled “Mahatma Gandhi: Pictures in pen, pencil and Brush.” Ravishankar Raval, one of the pioneers of art in Gujarat, painted Mahatma Gandhi's trial of 1922, which was held at Ahmadabad’s circuit house and this painting is considered to be one of the landmark in his oeuvre. Artists, like all other Indians were very much influenced by Gandhi’s Dandi march especially Nandlal Bose and Vinayak S. Masoji, who depicted this epic movement in all its glory. In his famous painting, “The Midnight Arrest,” Masoji had compared Gandhi’s arrest during his return from Dandi with the arrest of Jesus Christ at midnight in the garden of Gethsemanes. When Gandhi and Rajkumari Amrit Kaur saw this painting in the art gallery of the Congress she asked Gandhi whether the painting was based on the artist’s imagination or whether it had actually happened as was depicted in the painting. Gandhi quietly and with a smile replied: “yes, yes, exactly, exactly. They came like that.”38 But the most popular painting is Nandlal Bose’s linocut image of Gandhi: “Bapu Ji” 12 April 1930.He also made 83 panels ,what is called “Haripura Posters” in patua style in the Haripura congress (1938) on Gandhi’ invitation. Nandlal Bose had visualized steel mettle in a fragile looking frame of Gandhi. Another Santiniketan artist Ramkinkar Baiz has also immortalized Gandhi’s Dandi March. Dhiren Gandhi, the grand-nephew of Gandhi Ji had also portrayed him in so many sketches, that later got published titled ’Prayer and other Sketches of Mahatma Gandhi.’39These Sketches reveal some intimate reading of the subject. Feliks Topolsky, the Polish artist who later became British citizen visited India in 1944-46 and portrayed Gandhi through pencil, pen and brush. These paintings seem to presuppose the assassination of Gandhi and that way achieve a kind of reputation for the analysis of the premonition of artists. After Gandhi’s assassination, Chaganlal Jadav, the great renaissance artist of Gujarat painted an abstract series of thirteen paintings as a form of mourning; as much later, Atul Dodia has done in the same way in his ‘Lamentations’ (1999).40 Over the years, artist like,K.K.Hebbar(1911-1996), M.F.Hussain(1915--),K.G.Subrahmaniun(1924--) had tried to explore some of the unknown dimension of the personality of Gandhi; but the most comprehensive attempt to contemplate on Gandhi or Gandhism was an exhibition titled ‘Satyagraha - Indian and South African artists’ tribute to the spirit of9-11-1906",organized by ‘Afrikhadi.’

This show was a commemorative exhibition of the centenary of ‘Satyagraha’, where sixty seven artists from India and South Africa had participated.41 Some of the exciting works of this show were K G Subramanian’s “The earth is given to us in trust” in Mixed media, Gulam Mohammed Sheikh’s “His Satyagraha and ours” in Gauche on paper, Nilima Sheikh’s “Isvar Allah tere Jahan mein… Tempera on handmade paperboard, Haku Shah’s Untitled in Oil on Canvas, Walter D’Souza’s“Satyagraha”,

in Wood and Metal and Krishnamachari Bose’s“Gaddi of Mahatma” in Wood and Cotton.

Another important exhibition on Gandhi in recent times was ‘Postcards for Gandhi’ organized by SAHMAT in 1995 at Ahmedabad,Banglore,Mumbai,Kolkata,Chennai and Delhi in which 12 artists including Vivan Sundaram, Jehangir Sabavala and Jogen Chowdhury, Sudhir Patwardhan were highlighted. Gandhi still continues to be the muse for many young contemporary artists that was proved again at the just concluded three-day India Art Summit (22to24-08-2008). Gandhi and the environment were two themes that were most popular among younger artists. A giant spinning wheel by Smriti Arora was installed at the entrance of the Art Summit held at the Pragati Maidan,Delhi,that could be seen quite symbolically of Gandhi’s strong presence in the scene of contemporary art. K. Khosa did an interesting set of paintings. A couple of years or so back, Haku Shah executed certain interesting items incorporating dry leaves and branches, khadi pieces and charkha therein, with much of a symbolic connotation. Surely the aim was to propagate the Gandhian ideals. Ranga, a cartoonist, too joined the bandwagon by depicting Gandhiji in various postures and with his lathi with caricature effect.

Gandhi in Sculpture

The well known American sculptor Jo Davidson (1883-1952), who came to meet Gandhi at the time of Round Table Conference in London to make his bust, commissioned by Associated press commented about his subject’s profile in his Memoir: “Gandhi’s face was very mobile, every feature quivered, and a constant change played over his face when he talked. He practiced his passive resistance on me all the time while I worked; he submitted to my modeling him, but never willingly lent himself to it. Never once did he look at the clay I was working on. But when I stopped for a breather and just sat with him, he was extremely amiable.”41Despite his indifference, he was amiable and it was experienced also by the English sculptress, Clare Sheridan (1885-1970), who also sculpted Gandhi at the same time, remembers Gandhi as Hindu St. Francis and finds him deeply ‘impressive’: “In his grandiose simplicity, the little bare-legged men, wrapped around in his “khaddar” is deeply impressive.”42But his simplicity was captured in most authentic way by two Indian sculptors—Devi Prasad Roy Chowdhury (1899-1975) and Ram V. Sutar (1925-).Devi Prasad Roy Chowdhury has written epic poetry in stone by sculpting Dandi March in its full glory. Ten persons following Gandhi create such an energy and action that you feel like marching in a mass movement for something noble and just. And you can almost feel the vive of Gandhi and his aura. It is one of the great sculptures of modern India. It is installed on the T-junction of the Sardar Patel Marg, New Delhi. Roychoudhary’s Gandhi marching to Dandi is also installed in Marina beach, Chennai. But the most sought after statue of Gandhi all over India and the world is Ram v. Sutar’s (1925- ). His heroic size bust of Mahatma Gandhi is very popular and copies of it have been presented by the Govt. of India to foreign countries like Russia, England, Malaysia France, Italy, Argentina, Barbados and Caracas on the occasion of Gandhi Centenary Celebrations. A similar double heroic size bust made for International Trade Fair Asia '72 is erected as a permanent feature at Pragati Maidan in Delhi. An another monumental statue(13 feet) of Mahatma with two underprivileged children, that is erected in sandur,Banglore,Delhi Public School,Noida and Gandhi Smriti,Delhi shows prowess and dexterity of his hands.

The several statues of Mahatma Gandhi in different cities of the United States are installed; Prominent among these are Union Square, New York, Martin Luther King, Jr. Center and Martin Luther King, Jr. International Chapel in Atlanta, Mahatma Gandhi Center in Houston, San Francisco Ferry Terminal, International Peace Park, Salt Lake City and Mahatma Gandhi Center, St. Louis. In 2000, one particular standing statue, which was installed in Washington D.C., is very remarkable. Sculpted by Gautam Paul (1949-) this bronze statue ( 8 feet 8 inches excluding pedestal of 9'x7'x3'4". ) shows Gandhi in stride, as a mahatma and man of action evoking memories of Dandi march and the many padyatras he undertook throughout the length and breadth of the Indian sub-continent. In America people like Bob Clyatt, Joseph Delappe, Martine Vaugel, M.H.Hodge had sculpted Gandhi in various mode and various sizes. New York figurative sculptor Bob Clyatt has created sculpture of Gandhi (19’’H 12’’D 13’’W) sitting in traditional padmasan in bronze and resin. Joseph Delappe built the 17ft life-size sculpture using cardboard, and then recreated the salt march with the help of a treadmill at the Eyebeam gallery in New York. Martine Vaugel, the French-American sculptress who founded ‘passionist’movement in art had also portrayed Gandhi in a very compassionate mood. M.H.Hodge sculpted a series on historical busts of people who have contributed greatly to humanity. In this series Gandhi was portrayed in bronze (20”+12”+11”); with a smile in his face he looks dignified and compassionate.

Gandhi statue became an icon sought after by every country so a sculpture created by well-known Chinese painter Yuan Xikun was also erected in China on the international friendship forest located in the western part of the Beijing's Chaoyang Park. The statue, 1.08 meters in height and 1 meter in width depicts Gandhi reading a book.

In 2003, Tinka Christopher’s bronze sculpture of Gandhi was unveiled in Gandhi square in the city centre of Johannesburg on the eve of Mahatma’s birth day on 2nd October. This 2.5 metre statue depicts Gandhi as a young lawyer in his gown, over a suit and tie, with a book under his arm, looking determined but bit contemplative. This statue is erected upon a 5m tall plinth, making it an imposing presence in the space.

Gandhi in Literature

There are few novels, poems, stories where Gandhi is portrayed as a character or Gandhi is directly addressed, but there is enough literature where Gandhism or the issues Gandhi had raised, has been explored. If we keep ourselves limited to Hindi literature; it is very much evident that Gandhi as a full fledged character is to be found in novel like ’pahla Girmitia’ (written by Giriraj Kishore, 1999) and poems like Sohanlal Dwivedi’s ‘Yugavatar Gandhi’ and Shiyaram Sharan Gupta’s Bapu’(1938) only, but Gandhism has been dealt in so many novels, like Premchand’s ‘Premashram’ (1922), ’Rangbhoomi’ (1924) & ‘Karmabhoomi’ (1932), Jainendra Kumar’s ’Sunita’(1936), Bhagvaticharan Varma’s ‘’Tedhe Medhe Raste”(1946)’ and so on. The protagonist of ‘Rangbhoomi’ Surdas practices Satyagraha; when his friends are about to resort to violence, he says: “Friends, please go back home…It’s no use your collecting here to bait our masters. If I am destined to die none of you standing here will be able to save me. And if I am to be saved I’ll escape unhurt even through cannon fire. In fact, you have come here not to help me but to oppose me. Any notions of pity and right conduct that our masters and the army and the police might have been likely to entertain have been turned into anger by your collecting here. Alone, I might have shown our masters how one poor blind man is sufficient to repulse a whole army, to spike the mouth of cannon and to blunt the edge of a sword! I had wanted to fight this battle on the strength of my right conduct…” 43This is very obvious that it is the language Gandhi spoke all through his life. In the novel ‘’Premashram’ Premchand took the Gandhian concept of heart-transformation. And again he contextualizes the story of ‘Karmabhoomi’ in the Gandhian civil- disobedience movement.

Noted Indian English writer Raja Rao(1908-2006) envisages the Gandhian methods not only in the novel ‘Kanthapura’(1938),but in the collection of short stories titled’ ‘The Cow of the Barricades’(1947) also. No wonder Raja Rao has written Gandhi’s biography, called,’ Great Indian Way: A Life of Mahatma Gandhi’. Some novels are also available like Sudhir Kakar’The Seeker (2007), where Gandhi is depicted in some fictional and some not –so- fictional settings. But apart from depicting Gandhi or Gandhism some Gandhian principle has also been adopted by some authors in their creative process itself. The critic of Hindi Literature argues that the most salient feature of Gandhi’s life and philosophy has been his parsimoniousness, that is connected with his ideal of forbearance…nothing should be wasted and every little material should be used—that was his basic mantra. In this way Premchand, and its own way Maithilisharan Gupta adopts this ideal of parsimony in their creative-process. This is the reason the depiction of social reality in Premchand does not over- expand, does not go waste. This ideal is more rigorously adopted in his treatment of language where he squeezes it to its limits.44

* * *

Gandhi as Writer

Gandhi’s collected works run into hundred volumes containing fifty thousand pages, and it is edited written in between 1884 to 1948.By any account it is a huge body of work. He has written almost one lakhs letters and in the words of Anu Bandopadhyaya,” His urge to write made him scribble on running trains and rocking ships. He prepared the whole of the Green Pamphlet a while on voyage home in 1896. Hind Swaraj, a severe criticism of modern civilization, was written at stretch during his voyage from England to South Africa in 1909. He used the steamer stationary. When he got tired of writing with his right hand, he used the left and finished the books in ten days. Tolstoy read it and said that the question of passive resistance was "of very great importance not only for India but for whole world." Constructive Programme, a booklet on nation building work, was written on a train. His manuscripts had few marks of correction and seldom needed any change. And that, he said was due to "the spiritual discipline of a votary of truth".45 Like in all other sphere, in the domain of writing also Gandhi does not preach a thing that he himself does not practice. If he says that literature “must be simple in its presentation and direct in its expression like the language of Nature”46 his own writing is its biggest example—simple presentation and direct expression. See this one-liner: “Khadi is the sun of the village solar system.”47 Or this letter to Subhash Chandra Bose: ”The views you express seem to me to be so diametrically opposed to those of the others and my own that I do not see any possibility of bridging them…What is wrong is not the difference between us but loss of mutual respect and trust. This will be remedied by time which is the best healer…My prestige does not count. It has an independent value of its own. When my motive is suspected or my policy or programme rejected by the country, the prestige must go. India will rise and fall by the quality of the sum total of her many millions. Individuals, however high they may be, are of no account except in so far as they represent the many millions.”48 This is what he means by simple presentation and direct expression: a crystal clear expression coming out of the habit of catching- by- horn kind of directness and this has made him one of the most effective journalists of his time. Gandhi has edited three journals .The first was Indian Opinion (1903-1915) that he started in South Africa, it was bilingual—in English & Guajarati and for a short period in Tamil and Hindi too. The other two: Young India (1919-1932) in English, (its Gujrati version was ‘Navjivan’) and Harijan (1933-1948) in Gujarati, Hindi and English all from Ahmadabad. B.R.Nanda has rightly pointed out that:” Gandhi's journals were read by his political opponents and by the British officials as well as the Congress leaders because Gandhi used his journals for loud thinking. As Louis Fischer once said Gandhi did not have a blue pencil; he made few revisions, he wrote as thoughts came to him. The importance of the journals edited by Gandhi-Indian Opinion, Young India, Navajivan and Harijan – is that he used them to propagate his views through persuasion, discussion and debate. He opened up the columns of these journals even to his critics. He published their criticisms and then answered them. Once Jamnalal Bajaj complained that the Mahatma gave more time to his critics than to his adherents; Gandhi answered that he did not have to convert the converted and preferred to listen to his critics to try to remove their doubts.”49 A professor at the Oxford University, who assisted on drafting some of Gandhi's statements made at the Round Table Conference, said: "I have never met an Indian who had mastered the prepositions as Gandhi has.... I took a deal of trouble over this drafting. Mr. Gandhi would glance over my work and would make just one suitable prepositional change. It did its work. It changed my meaning into Mr. Gandhi's meaning."50

It is important to note that all significant work of Gandhi is written in Gujrati-- Be it Hind Swaraj (1909), or Satyano Prayogo (My Experiments with Truth1927&1929) or Dakshin Africana Satyagramo Itihas (Satyagraha in South Africa, 1924) or for that matter his Discourses on Gita (1930). And these are the work that pioneered in Gujrati prose a style that is bereft of any ornamental vagueness or pseudo-abstractness and clearly it marks a departure. This was the style that captures truth while it resonates and critic called it ‘Gandhian style.51 No wonder with Narmada Shankar, Mansukh Ram Tripathy, Naval Ram and K.M.Munshi he is considered to be the pioneer of modern Gujrati prose. Gandhi has contributed in another way also to improve the quality of Gujrati prose is by doing some translation in Gujrati. He has translated Ruskin’s ‘unto this last’, Plato’s ‘Defense and Death of Socrates’, ‘Life of Kamal Pasha’ and some work of Carlyle into Gujrati. His was not a literal translation, rather very consciously text was adopted to the demand of an emerging prose; this is the reason why ‘Unto This Last’ became ‘Sarvodaya’ and ‘Defense and Death of Socrates’ into ‘Satyavir Sokritis’. Gandhi has also translated some devotional work of medieval saint poets into English. Gandhi was also very concerned about the moral upliftment of children and a lack of reading material for them so like in all other sphere he himself set an example; he wrote two books for them—one primer called,‘Balpothi’ and other ‘Nitidharma’. It was his well thought idea that “if we are to reach real peace in this world and if we are to carry on war against war, we shall have to begin with children; and if they will grow up in their natural innocence, we won’t have to struggle, we won’t have to pass fruitless idle resolutions. But we shall go from love to love and peace to peace, until at last all the corners of the world are covered with that peace and love for which,consciously or unconsciously, the whole world is hungering.”52

Not only ‘Balpothi’ or ‘Nitikatha’ but whole of the ‘Gandhi –vangmaya’ helps us to grow in our ‘natural innocence!

Notes and References

1. Dilip Kumar Roy, Among the Great, Jaico Publishing House, Bombay, 1950, pp.65-66.

2.Shriman Narayan(ed.),The Selected Works Of Mahatma Gandhi, vol.six, Navajivan Trust, Third Reprint Popular Edition,1995,pp.180-81.(Young India,23.03.1921)

3. Ibid, p288. (Young India, 13.11.1924)

4. Ibid, p287.

5. Ibid.

6. Luis Fischer, The Life Of Mahatma Gandhi, Indus(Harper Collins),New Delhi, Second Impression1993, p368 .

7. Aristotle, Poetics,(Tr.Malcom Heath),Penguin Books,1996.

8. Shriman Narayan, Ibid, p289. (Young India, 13.11.1924)

9. Ibid, p300.(Among the Great,pp61-67)

10. Longinus, On the sublime,(Tr.William Rhys Roberts),Garland,1987.

11. Shriman Narayan, Ibid, p291.(Harijan,19.02.1938)

12. रोमाँ रोला, महात्मा गाँधी जीवन और दर्शन, (अनु.प्रफुल्लचन्द्र ओझामुक्त), लोकभारती प्रकाशन, इलाहाबाद, पहला पेपरबैक संस्करण, 2008, पृ.132

13. Shriman Narayan, ibid, p292. (Harijan, 7-4-1946)

14. Shriman Narayan, Ibid, pp.224-25 (The Diary of Mahadev Desai-1:1953)

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid p299 (Among the Great, p.61-67)

17. Ibid p302 (ibid, pp.78-82)

18. Ibid, P.300 (ibid, pp.61-67)

19. Plato, Republic, (Tr.C.D.C. Reeve), Hackett Publishing, 2004.

20. Shriman Narayan, Ibid, p297 (ibid)

21. Luis Fischer, Ibid, p369.

22.रोमां रोला, वही, पृ.134-135

23Shriman Narayan, Ibid, p.304-305(Harijan, 14-11-1936)

24. Ibid, p291 (ibid, p315)

25Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (ed.), The Mahatma and the Poet, National Book Trust, Delhi, second reprint1999, p.80

26.”The film …is pure hagiography; the late-twentieth-century equivalent of a medieval encomium of a remarkable saint rendered in words and illuminated pictures.” James Lawrence, Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India, Little Brown and company, pp465

27. Tushar Gandhi, I’m pleased with Hirani’s Gandhigiri, 19-03-2007, in

28. S.Ganesh, Lage Raho Munnabhai: History as Farce, Economic and Political Review, 14-10-2006

29. Jahnu Barua, the Telegraph, Kolkata, 10-10-2006

30. Shastri Ramachandra, Jollywood Bollywood; Munnabhai rescues Mahatma, The Tribune, Chandigarh, 23-09-2006

31. Salil Singh, If Gandhi Could Fly…: Dilemma and Directions in Shadow Puppetry of India, The Drama Review, Vol.43, No.3, p154

32. Deccan Herald, Feb3’2008

33. Ibid.

34. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, ibid, preface

35. of artistic depictions of Mahatma Gandhi

36. Philip Glass's style can broadly be described as minimalist, but the music in Satyagraha is somewhat more expansive than is implied by that label. The cast of the opera includes 2 sopranos, 2 mezzo-sopranos, 2 tenors, a baritone and 2 basses and a large SATB chorus. The orchestra is strings and woodwinds only, no brass or percussion.

37. Mukul Dey, Portraits of Mahatma Gandhi, Orient Longman, 1948, preface (

38. Quoted in Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay, Gandhi Marg, Volume 26, Number 3, October-December 2004

39. Dhiren Gandhi, Prayer and other Sketches of Mahatma Gandhi, Nalanda Publication, Mumbai, 1948.

40.” Atul’s watercolours have led the Mahatma out of the tumultuous pages of history into the gentle sepia-washed terrain of his canvas. Here, Gandhi is given a new lease of life with sensitive brush strokes. A rich burnt sienna reaffirms the strength and spirit of Gandhi beneath the frail ‘minimalist’ body. Luminous yellow-whites merge into deep ambers inviting a closer scrutiny of nuances. Shades, we must remember that make the fabric of humanity. Shades, that Gandhi urged, we embrace as one people.” Ranjit Hoskote,

41. Indian Artists: KG Subrahmanyan ,Gulam Mohammed Sheikh, Nilima Sheikh, Vasudevan Akkitham ,Indrapramit Roy, Alok Bal, Mahendra Pandya, Mayyur Kailash Gupta, Anandjit Ray,

Anuj Poddar, Sumedh Rajendran, H G Arun, Soman Rajinder Tikku, Rajasekharan Nair,

Karl Antao, Shatrughna Thakore, Haku Shah ,Hindol Brahmabhatt ,Walter D'Souza ,Sudhir Patwardhan ,Krishnamachari Bose ,Sudarshan Shetty ,Simeen Oshidar,

Riyas Komu, Chintan Upadhyaya, T V Santhosh, Anup Panikkar, Suryakant Lokhande ,Vivek Vilasini ,Tushar Joag ,Abhimanue V G, Subba Ghosh, Iranna Koumudi Patil, Sabu Joseph, Murali Cheeroth Harindran, T K Binoy Vargheese ,Benitha P SunojSonia

Vinod Patel, Vinod Daroz Pradeep, Dilip Tamuly, Valsan Koleri.

South-African Artists; Gabisile Nkosi Lindelani Ngwenya Sfiso Kamkame Zama Dunywa Vulindlela Nyoni Sam Nhlengthwa Vanessa Berlein Philip Briel Anthony Mutheki Hildegard Ignatius Marx Lene Pienaar Simmi Dullay Paul Lawrenson Andrew Verster Andian Walsh Cling Singh Marklyn Go vender Rani Pillai

42. Jo Davidson, between sittings,

43. Clare Sheridan, The Great Little Mahatma in S. Radhakrishnan (ed.), Mahatma Gandhi: Essays and Reflections, Jaico Publishing House, 2000, p273.

44. Amrit Rai, Premchand His Life and Times, Oxford India Paperbacks, 1991, p199.

45.रामस्वरूप चतुर्वेदी,हिन्दी साहित्य और संवेदना का विकास,लोकभारती प्रकाशन,इलाहाबाद ,प्रथम संस्करण ,1986,पृ.165-166.

46. Anu Bandopadhyaya M. K. Gandhi: Author, Journalist, Printer, Navjivan Press, Ahmadabad, in (www,

47. Shriman Narayan, ibid, p398 (Harijan16.11.1934)

48. Ibid, vol.5.pp.241-42

49. B.R.Nanda,

50. Quoted in Anu Bandopadhyaya, ibid.

51. विजयदेवनारायण साही, छठवाँ दशक,हिन्दुस्तानी एकेडेमी,इलाहाबाद,प्रथम संस्करण,1987,पृ.267.

52. Shriman Narayan, ibid, pp.495-96(Young India, 19.11.1931, p361).

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