Gandhi & Art
“...there are so many superstitions rife about me that it has now become almost impossible for me to overtake those who have been spreading them. As a result, my friends’ only reaction is almost invariably a smile when I claim I am an artist myself.”1
What Gandhi said to Dilip Kumar Roy in above quotation is still prevalent. The reaction as smile has not changed as yet since we hardly talk Gandhi in relation to Art(forget about talking Gandhi as an Artist) though it could be discussed in so many ways—for example we can probe into Gandhian Aesthetics; I mean what Gandhi thought about Beauty and Art, what was his idea about literature, painting, music etc.; we can also analyze those works of films, plays, painting, music, sculpture, literature where Gandhi and Gandhism is the subject; It is also worth focusing Gandhi as litterateur and as a translator as his writing runs through hundred of volumes in Gujarati and English.
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Gandhian Aesthetics: The Aesthetics of Satyagraha
Truth is Beauty
In Young India dated 23.03.1921, Gandhi wrote Satyagraha is literally holding on to Truth and it means, therefore, Truth-force. Truth is soul or spirit. It is, therefore, known as soul force.2 In some other place he proclaimed that “I see and find beauty in Truth or through Truth. All truth, not merely true ideas, but truthful faces, truthful pictures, or songs, are highly beautiful….Truth may manifest itself in forms which may not be outwardly beautiful at all.Socrates,we are told, was the most truthful man of his time and yet his features are said to have been the ugliest in Greece. To my mind, he was beautiful because all his life was a striving after Truth, and you may remember that his outward form did not prevent Phidias from appreciating the beauty of Truth in him, though as an artist he was accustomed to see Beauty in outward forms also.”3Here Gandhi stresses the dichotomy of content and form and takes side of the content but later he equates form with immorality:
“Take Oscar Wilde. I can speak of him, as I was in
USEFUL IS BEAUTIFUL
What is Useful is beautiful: Gandhi once remarked that “why can’t you see the beauty of colour in vegetables?”13 And again in other place he concluded that “Beauty divorced from utility is inconceivable”14.For him utility in art means leading a man “one step forward on the path of morality and gives him elevated views.”15
ART AS NATURE
Generally Art is discussed either with the reference of Nature or Culture. Nature is given whereas Culture is constructed. If we see Art as Nature; we tend to evaluate it as a natural object whereas Art as Culture expects to be treated as an artifact. Gandhi mostly perceives Art as Nature that’s the reason he makes parallel between the two:” To me art, in order to be truly great, must, like the beauty of Nature, be universal in its appeal….It must be simple in its presentation and direct in its expression like the language of Nature.”16No wonder when he was asked why he is so much against specialization he posed a counter question, “why don’t you look the plain fact in the face that Nature, which must be the last inspiration of all real arts, never stints? She never specializes in a way so that only the cultured few may enjoy her bounties leaving the vast majority out in the cold.”17 In other place he asks,” could one conceive of any painting comparable in inspiration to that of the star-studded sky, the majestic sea, the noble mountains? Is there a painter’s colour comparable to the vermillion of an emergent dawn or the gold of a parting day? No, my friend, I need no inspiration other than Nature’s. She has never failed me yet: she mystifies me, bewilders me, sends me into ecstasies. What need have I for the childish colour-schemes of humans?”18 Here Gandhi reminds us of Plato’s idea of art as imitation.19 But when it comes to the music Gandhi responds differently as he says: “To me music is something to receive joy and inspiration from.” and reminisces by saying that “how well I remember, the joy and peace and comfort that music used to give me when I was ailing in a South African hospital. I was then recovering from some hurts I had received at the hands of some roughs who had been engaged to cripple me—thanks to the growing success of my passive Resistance Campaign. At my request the daughter of a friend of mine used, very often, to sing to me the famous hymn,’ lead Kindly Light’. And how it acted like a healing balm—invariably! I still remember this song with gratitude.”20 No wonder music and prayer became the integral part of his well structured daily chores and scheme of things that he never missed even on busy schedule of his foreign trips. Here is Louis Fischer reporting Gandhi’s stay with Romain Rolland in
In the context of Gandhi’s proposition of nature-like Art and its easy communicability, we can contemplate into one of the illustration that Tagore had cited in a debate with Gandhi: “I am in search of a vina player. I have tried East and I have tried West, but have not found the man of my quest. They are all experts, they can make the strings resound to a degree, they command high prices, but for all their wonderful execution they can strike no chord in my heart. At last I came across one whose very first notes melt away the sense of oppression within. In him is the fire of the Shakti of joy which can light up all other hearts by its touch. His appeal to me is instant and I hail him as Master. I then want a vina made. For this,ofcourse are required all kind of material and a different kind of science.If,finding me to be lacking in the means my master should be moved to pity and say:” Never mind, my son do not go to the expense in workmanship and time which a vina will require. Take rather this simple string tightened across a piece of wood and practice on it. In a short time you will find it to be as good as a vina.” Would that do? I am afraid not.”25
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Gandhi & Gandhism as Art-Subject
Gandhi and Gandhism has been explained, represented and interpreted, over the years, through various art-forms---in film, theatre, music, painting, sculpture, literature and what not, even in parodies and computer games. By any account, it is a huge body of work that can be dealt here, (knowing the limitations of an article) of course, quite selectively. First of all, let us start with films.
Gandhi in Films
Gandhi was first portrayed in a British film called ‘Nine Hours to Rama’(1963).This film was based on the work of a History Professor at the University of California, Mr. Stanley Wolpert. The film depicted the nine hours in the life of Nathuram Godse that lead up to Gandhi ji’s assassination. Starring J.S.Casshyap as Gandhi, Horst Buchholz as Godse, Jairaj as G.D.Birla, Basdeo Pandey, (who later became Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago) in a minor role and filmed almost entirely on location in
The second important venture in which Gandhi was portrayed most completely to that date was Richard Attenborough’s Gandhi (1982).Starring Ben Kingsley as Gandhi, Rohini Hattangadi as Kasturba Gandhi, Roshan Seth as Jawaharlal Nehru, Saeed Jaffrey as Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Alyque Padamsee as Jinnah and Written by John Briley, music composed by Ravi Shankar and George Fenton, this 188 minutes long film was a real spectacle costing $22,000,000.It turned out to be a huge success as it won eight Academy Awards, besides awards from BAFTA, National Board of Review and Golden Globes. Generally this film is considered to be historically correct but as far as the portrayal of the protagonist is concerned it was suggested from some quarters that Gandhi is over- idealized here and it is simply hagiography.26But approach of the film was quite clear from the very beginning as it opened with these words: “No man's life can be encompassed in one telling... least of all Gandhi's, whose passage through life was so entwined with his nation's struggle for freedom. There is no way to give each event its allotted weight, to recount the deeds and sacrifices of all the great men and women to whom he and
Apart from these three above-mentioned films, Gandhi had also been portrayed in the films where his contemporaries are the main protagonists like M.A.Jinnah (‘Jinnah’ 1998 dir.Jamil Dehlavi,Sam Dastor as Gandhi),Vallabhbhai patel (‘Sardar’, 1993,dir.Ketan Mehta, Anu Kapur as Gandhi),vinayak Damodar savarkar (‘Veer Savarkar’2001,dir.Ved Rahi, Surendra Rajan as Gandhi),Baba Sahib Ambedkar (‘Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar’,2000, dir. Jabbar Patel, Mohan Gokhle as Gandhi) and Subhash Chandra Bose (‘Neta Ji Subhash Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero ’2005,dir.Shyam Benegal, Surendra Rajan as Gandhi).These films deserve separate elaboration but One thing can be emphasized here about these films is their inability to justify the protagonist’s historical space in relation to Gandhi. Some films, like Hey Ram (dir.Kamal Hasan, 2000, Nasseruddin Shah as Gandhi), Water (dir.Deepa Mehta, 2005, Mohan jhangiani as Gandhi), Lage Raho Munnabhai (dir.Rajkumar Hirani, 2006, Dilip Prabhavalkar as Gandhi),were also made where Gandhi appeared briefly or film like Gandhi, My Father, based on the work of Chandulal Bhagubhai Dalal’s Harilal Gandhi: A Life (dir.Feroz Abbas Khan, 2007, Darshan Jariwala as Gandhi) probes some less known, unexplored aspects of interpersonal relationship of Gandhi.Jahnu Barua’s Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara(2005) and Ketan Mehta’s Mangal Pandey:The Rising(2005) uses some real footage of Gandhi for the purpose of story and its authenticity.
Gandhism in Films
It is difficult to differentiate Gandhi from Gandhism as Gandhi himself once famously remarked that his life is his message; but it is true that some films were made in which Gandhi was not portrayed but some components of Gandhism were dealt with. It could be debatable to trace some Gandhian influence in films like Achhut Kanya (1936) of Franz Osten (1876-1956), or Dunia Na Mane (1937) and Dr.Kotnis ki Amar Kahani (1946) of V.Shantaram (1901-90);but it may be safely argued that socially relevant films made in the 40s and early fifties certainly had some Gandhian tinge in it. The relevance of Gandhism or rather lack of it for our contemporary Indian society is being hotly discussed. Ashutosh Gowariker’s Swadesh (2004) opens with these words of Gandhi: ”Hesitating to act because the whole vision might not be achieved, or because others do not yet share it, is an attitude that only hinders progress.” It is said that the film director was inspired by the Rajni Bakshi’s book ‘Bapu Kuti’ through which he came to know about the story of Arvind Pillalamarri and Ravi Kuchimanchi, the NRI couple who returned to
Gandhi on Stage
Portraying Gandhi on stage, comparing to celluloid is a recent phenomenon. In 1995, Feroz Abbas Khan staged the “Gandhi Virudh Gandhi” in Mumbai. This play was based on Dinkar Joshi’s Guajarati Novel ‘Prakashno Padchayo’ (Shadows of Light) in which the troubled relationship of Gandhi with his elder son Harilal was explored. This was an effort to understand Gandhi not in the realm of Politics but in his private sphere. The play was staged in Marathi, Gujarati, Hindi and English (in English, titled Mahatma vs. Gandhi) and got rave reviews. As Gandhi, in different productions, Atul Kulkarni, Boman Irani and Nasseruddin Shah were able to delve deep into the psyche of a father who had constantly been encroached upon his private and public domain. The play was staged successfully across the country.
Next year, in Jan ’1996 Gandhi was presented in shadow puppetry. Commissioned by Sangeet Natak Akademi and Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, three important episodes of Gandhi’s life---train episode of
One controversial play that was produced on stage was Pradeep Dalvi’s Gujarati play ‘Mee Nathuram Godse Boltoi’ in 1997; after the Maharashtra government’s refusal for its show in 1989.This play justifies the godse’s action of killing as Gandhi was shown responsible for the partition of the country. It was a highly volatile and condemnable issue; no wonder after six shows it was banned but again permitted in 2002.Creating antithetical situation or anti-hero is a theatrical ploy but outright justification of an objectionable action (i.e. murder) reduces it to the level of propaganda. In this way, the play ‘Gandhi-Ambedkar’ (1997) by Premanand Gajvi has more potentiality. Directed by Chetan Datar and acted by Mangesh Bhide as Gandhi and Kishore Kadam as Ambedkar, the play tried to highlight the difference of opinions of two great souls, especially in the context of cast issue. Though the play is tilted towards Ambedkar it does not vandalize Gandhi either. It got some critical acclaim.
Reacting to the over-critical portrayal of Gandhi, some production started strengthening the proto-typical image of him. ‘Mahadevbhai’ (2002) is one such play that was based on the diary of Gandhi’s secretary Mahadev Desai. Directed by Ramu Ramanathan, this play narrates the diary, effectively done by Jamini Pathak and in the course of it, throws light on some of the well known, positive facts of mahatma’s life. The play was staged across the country.
In 2005, a newly established Primetime Theatre Company, Mumbai had staged a two-act play of Pratap Sharma titled, ‘Sammy! A Word that Broke an Empire’. The play was directed by Lillete Dube and Gandhi was enacted by Joy sengupta (young Gandhi) and Ravi Dube (Mahatma Gandhi).This play is two hour long and covers a long span of Gandhi’s life—from South African days to last days, so consequently it is fast-paced and episodical. Although it does not go very deep into the psyche of the transformation of Gandhi to Mahatma, nevertheless it makes the text of Gandhism communicable to the youth and ‘uninitiated.’ After its premier at Tata Theatre NCPA, Mumbai on 30th July’2005 it was staged across the country and all over the world successfully.
In 2006, Mohan Maharishi presented Gandhi in a less-explored form in
Gandhi in Parodies
The MTV cartoon ‘Clone High’ depicts the clone of Gandhi as one of the main characters. The Family Guy movie features a cutaway of a portrayed Gandhi unsuccessfully doing stand-up comedy at a club. The cartoon ‘Time Squad’ on Cartoon Network has an episode where Gandhi is portrayed as wanting to do tap dancing as a career, instead of leading
Gandhi in Computer games
Gandhi has been casted in the video game series ‘Civilization’, as a lone leader of the Indian Civilization. He has appeared in the first three games as a lone Civilization leader, but in ‘Civilization IV’, he has been shown alongside Asoka. In Celebrity Deathmatch, Gandhi is casted opposite Changej Khan.
Gandhi in Music
Musicians all over the world had tried to capture the essence of Gandhi or Gandhi’s idea in different forms. In India Some great classical singers had composed new Ragas on Gandhi like ‘Gandhi Bilaval’ by Allauddin Khan, ‘Mohan Kauns’ by Ravi Shankar, ‘Mohan Gandhi’ by Bala Murlikrishna, ’Gandhi Malhar’ by Kumar Gandharva, and ‘Bapu Kauns’ by Amjad Ali Khan. These ragas are meant to reflect upon the personality or ideas of Gandhi in musical terms; in this way, each raga is an individual interpretation of Gandhi or Gandhism.
In west Philip Glass had tried to capture the essence of Gandhian Satyagraha in an opera form. It is a three act opera comprising orchestra, chorus and soloists, composed by Philip Glass, with a libretto by Glass and Constance de Jong. It was commissioned by the city of
On the occasion of 60th death anniversary of Gandhi (January 30th, 2008) a new Dutch Musical was performed in the Amstelveen Theatre, named Gandhi. In fact the Musical was outcome of cooperation between several producers, the Gandhiserve Foundation in
There is also some other kind of music, especially in the realm of popular music that was created all over the world, remembering Gandhi or under the influence of Gandhism like Bob Dylan: ‘They Killed Him’, Capitol Steps: ‘The Gandhi Man’, Pete Morton: Gandhi and Jesus, Silknoose: ‘Gandhi Tentacle Song’, Brian Spence: ‘Gandhi (We will write),’ ‘ Human: Mahatma’, Manhattan Gandhi: ‘Satyagraha’, Patti Smith: ‘Gandhi’, Marti Walker: ‘Compassion’, Bob Livingston: ‘M. Gandhi & Sitting Bull’, 1001 Ways: ‘Through my senses’, ‘Gandhi ‘(radio mix), Brian Boydell: ‘In Memoriam Mahatma Gandhi’, Barrage: ‘Mahatma’, Hufeisen: ‘Der Tempel’, Plume Latraverse: ‘La Ballade De Sandale Et Gandhi’, (French), Ange: ‘Et Gandhi l'indoux dit tout doux,’( French), Anju Bhatt: ‘Es pawan Gujarat ki dharti per’…, & others (Hindi) Mohammed Rafi: ;Suno suno ye Duniya Walo’, (Hindi), Aufwind: ‘Im Rad der Zeit’, ‘Harijan’, ‘Korrekt korrupt’, ‘Ahimsa’, ’Gut und Böse’, ‘Satyagraha’, ‘Mantra Mahatma’, (German), Howard Carpendale: ‘Gandhi’, (German), Bernd Stelter: ‘Mahatma’, (German), A Musica do oldodum: ‘Mahatma Olodum’, (Portuguese) and so on.
Gandhi in Painting
Gandhi is one of the most portrayed persons of 20th century although he always refused to sit or pose for artists. In his life-time, he was mostly portrayed by his contemporary artist, like Nandlal Bose (1882-1966), Ravishankar Raval (1892-1977),
Mukul Dey (1895-1989),Vinayak S.Masoji (1897-),Chaganlal Jadav (1903-1987),Kanu Desai(1907- ),Feliks Topolsky (1907-1989) and Dhiren Gandhi in the period between 1918 to 1948. When he returned from
This show was a commemorative exhibition of the centenary of ‘Satyagraha’, where sixty seven artists from India and South Africa had participated.41 Some of the exciting works of this show were K G Subramanian’s “The earth is given to us in trust” in Mixed media, Gulam Mohammed Sheikh’s “His Satyagraha and ours” in Gauche on paper, Nilima Sheikh’s “Isvar Allah tere Jahan mein…..in Tempera on handmade paperboard, Haku Shah’s Untitled in Oil on Canvas, Walter D’Souza’s“Satyagraha”,
in Wood and Metal and Krishnamachari Bose’s“Gaddi of Mahatma” in Wood and Cotton.
Another important exhibition on Gandhi in recent times was ‘Postcards for Gandhi’ organized by SAHMAT in 1995 at Ahmedabad,Banglore,Mumbai,Kolkata,Chennai and Delhi in which 12 artists including Vivan Sundaram, Jehangir Sabavala and Jogen Chowdhury, Sudhir Patwardhan were highlighted. Gandhi still continues to be the muse for many young contemporary artists that was proved again at the just concluded three-day India Art Summit (22to24-08-2008). Gandhi and the environment were two themes that were most popular among younger artists. A giant spinning wheel by Smriti Arora was installed at the entrance of the Art Summit held at the Pragati Maidan,Delhi,that could be seen quite symbolically of Gandhi’s strong presence in the scene of contemporary art. K. Khosa did an interesting set of paintings. A couple of years or so back, Haku Shah executed certain interesting items incorporating dry leaves and branches, khadi pieces and charkha therein, with much of a symbolic connotation. Surely the aim was to propagate the Gandhian ideals. Ranga, a cartoonist, too joined the bandwagon by depicting Gandhiji in various postures and with his lathi with caricature effect.
Gandhi in Sculpture
The well known American sculptor Jo Davidson (1883-1952), who came to meet Gandhi at the time of Round Table Conference in
The several statues of Mahatma Gandhi in different cities of the
Gandhi statue became an icon sought after by every country so a sculpture created by well-known Chinese painter Yuan Xikun was also erected in
In 2003, Tinka Christopher’s bronze sculpture of Gandhi was unveiled in Gandhi square in the city centre of
Gandhi in Literature
There are few novels, poems, stories where Gandhi is portrayed as a character or Gandhi is directly addressed, but there is enough literature where Gandhism or the issues Gandhi had raised, has been explored. If we keep ourselves limited to Hindi literature; it is very much evident that Gandhi as a full fledged character is to be found in novel like ’pahla Girmitia’ (written by Giriraj Kishore, 1999) and poems like Sohanlal Dwivedi’s ‘Yugavatar Gandhi’ and Shiyaram Sharan Gupta’s Bapu’(1938) only, but Gandhism has been dealt in so many novels, like Premchand’s ‘Premashram’ (1922), ’Rangbhoomi’ (1924) & ‘Karmabhoomi’ (1932), Jainendra Kumar’s ’Sunita’(1936), Bhagvaticharan Varma’s ‘’Tedhe Medhe Raste”(1946)’ and so on. The protagonist of ‘Rangbhoomi’ Surdas practices Satyagraha; when his friends are about to resort to violence, he says: “Friends, please go back home…It’s no use your collecting here to bait our masters. If I am destined to die none of you standing here will be able to save me. And if I am to be saved I’ll escape unhurt even through cannon fire. In fact, you have come here not to help me but to oppose me. Any notions of pity and right conduct that our masters and the army and the police might have been likely to entertain have been turned into anger by your collecting here. Alone, I might have shown our masters how one poor blind man is sufficient to repulse a whole army, to spike the mouth of cannon and to blunt the edge of a sword! I had wanted to fight this battle on the strength of my right conduct…” 43This is very obvious that it is the language Gandhi spoke all through his life. In the novel ‘’Premashram’ Premchand took the Gandhian concept of heart-transformation. And again he contextualizes the story of ‘Karmabhoomi’ in the Gandhian civil- disobedience movement.
Noted Indian English writer Raja Rao(1908-2006) envisages the Gandhian methods not only in the novel ‘Kanthapura’(1938),but in the collection of short stories titled’ ‘The Cow of the Barricades’(1947) also. No wonder Raja Rao has written Gandhi’s biography, called,’
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Gandhi as Writer
Gandhi’s collected works run into hundred volumes containing fifty thousand pages, and it is edited written in between 1884 to 1948.By any account it is a huge body of work. He has written almost one lakhs letters and in the words of Anu Bandopadhyaya,” His urge to write made him scribble on running trains and rocking ships. He prepared the whole of the Green Pamphlet a while on voyage home in 1896. Hind Swaraj, a severe criticism of modern civilization, was written at stretch during his voyage from
It is important to note that all significant work of Gandhi is written in Gujrati-- Be it Hind Swaraj (1909), or Satyano Prayogo (My Experiments with Truth1927&1929) or Dakshin Africana Satyagramo Itihas (Satyagraha in South Africa, 1924) or for that matter his Discourses on Gita (1930). And these are the work that pioneered in Gujrati prose a style that is bereft of any ornamental vagueness or pseudo-abstractness and clearly it marks a departure. This was the style that captures truth while it resonates and critic called it ‘Gandhian style.’51 No wonder with Narmada Shankar, Mansukh Ram Tripathy, Naval Ram and K.M.Munshi he is considered to be the pioneer of modern Gujrati prose. Gandhi has contributed in another way also to improve the quality of Gujrati prose is by doing some translation in Gujrati. He has translated Ruskin’s ‘unto this last’, Plato’s ‘Defense and Death of Socrates’, ‘Life of Kamal Pasha’ and some work of Carlyle into Gujrati. His was not a literal translation, rather very consciously text was adopted to the demand of an emerging prose; this is the reason why ‘Unto This Last’ became ‘Sarvodaya’ and ‘Defense and Death of Socrates’ into ‘Satyavir Sokritis’. Gandhi has also translated some devotional work of medieval saint poets into English. Gandhi was also very concerned about the moral upliftment of children and a lack of reading material for them so like in all other sphere he himself set an example; he wrote two books for them—one primer called,‘Balpothi’ and other ‘Nitidharma’. It was his well thought idea that “if we are to reach real peace in this world and if we are to carry on war against war, we shall have to begin with children; and if they will grow up in their natural innocence, we won’t have to struggle, we won’t have to pass fruitless idle resolutions. But we shall go from love to love and peace to peace, until at last all the corners of the world are covered with that peace and love for which,consciously or unconsciously, the whole world is hungering.”52
Not only ‘Balpothi’ or ‘Nitikatha’ but whole of the ‘Gandhi –vangmaya’ helps us to grow in our ‘natural innocence!
Notes and References
1. Dilip Kumar Roy, Among the Great, Jaico Publishing House,
2.Shriman Narayan(ed.),The Selected Works Of Mahatma Gandhi, vol.six, Navajivan Trust, Third Reprint Popular Edition,1995,pp.180-81.(Young India,23.03.1921)
3. Ibid, p288. (Young
4. Ibid, p287.
6. Luis Fischer, The Life Of Mahatma Gandhi, Indus(Harper Collins),New Delhi, Second Impression1993, p368 .
7. Aristotle, Poetics,(Tr.Malcom Heath),Penguin Books,1996.
8. Shriman Narayan, Ibid, p289. (Young
9. Ibid, p300.(Among the Great,pp61-67)
10. Longinus, On the sublime,(Tr.William Rhys Roberts),
11. Shriman Narayan, Ibid, p291.(Harijan,19.02.1938)
12. रोमाँ रोला, महात्मा गाँधी जीवन और दर्शन, (अनु.प्रफुल्लचन्द्र ओझा’मुक्त’), लोकभारती प्रकाशन, इलाहाबाद, पहला पेपरबैक संस्करण, 2008, पृ.132
13. Shriman Narayan, ibid, p292. (Harijan, 7-4-1946)
14. Shriman Narayan, Ibid, pp.224-25 (The Diary of Mahadev Desai-1:1953)
16. Ibid p299 (Among the Great, p.61-67)
17. Ibid p302 (ibid, pp.78-82)
18. Ibid, P.300 (ibid, pp.61-67)
19. Plato, Republic, (Tr.C.D.C. Reeve), Hackett Publishing, 2004.
20. Shriman Narayan, Ibid, p297 (ibid)
21. Luis Fischer, Ibid, p369.
22.रोमां रोला, वही, पृ.134-135
23Shriman Narayan, Ibid, p.304-305(Harijan, 14-11-1936)
24. Ibid, p291 (ibid, p315)
25Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (ed.), The Mahatma and the Poet, National Book Trust,
26.”The film …is pure hagiography; the late-twentieth-century equivalent of a medieval encomium of a remarkable saint rendered in words and illuminated pictures.” James Lawrence, Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India, Little Brown and company, pp465
27. Tushar Gandhi, I’m pleased with Hirani’s Gandhigiri, 19-03-2007, in www.nowrunning.com
28. S.Ganesh, Lage Raho Munnabhai: History as Farce, Economic and Political Review, 14-10-2006
29. Jahnu Barua, the Telegraph, Kolkata, 10-10-2006
30. Shastri Ramachandra, Jollywood Bollywood; Munnabhai rescues Mahatma, The Tribune,
31. Salil Singh, If Gandhi Could Fly…: Dilemma and Directions in Shadow Puppetry of India, The Drama Review, Vol.43, No.3, p154
34. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, ibid, preface
35.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List of artistic depictions of Mahatma Gandhi
36. Philip Glass's style can broadly be described as minimalist, but the music in Satyagraha is somewhat more expansive than is implied by that label. The cast of the opera includes 2 sopranos, 2 mezzo-sopranos, 2 tenors, a baritone and 2 basses and a large SATB chorus. The orchestra is strings and woodwinds only, no brass or percussion.
37. Mukul Dey, Portraits of Mahatma Gandhi, Orient Longman, 1948, preface (www.chitralekha.org)
38. Quoted in Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay, Gandhi Marg, Volume 26, Number 3, October-December 2004
39. Dhiren Gandhi, Prayer and other Sketches of Mahatma Gandhi, Nalanda Publication, Mumbai, 1948.
40.” Atul’s watercolours have led the Mahatma out of the tumultuous pages of history into the gentle sepia-washed terrain of his canvas. Here, Gandhi is given a new lease of life with sensitive brush strokes. A rich burnt sienna reaffirms the strength and spirit of Gandhi beneath the frail ‘minimalist’ body. Luminous yellow-whites merge into deep ambers inviting a closer scrutiny of nuances. Shades, we must remember that make the fabric of humanity. Shades, that Gandhi urged, we embrace as one people.” Ranjit Hoskote,
41. Indian Artists: KG Subrahmanyan ,Gulam Mohammed Sheikh, Nilima Sheikh, Vasudevan Akkitham ,Indrapramit Roy, Alok Bal, Mahendra Pandya, Mayyur Kailash Gupta, Anandjit Ray,
Anuj Poddar, Sumedh Rajendran, H G Arun, Soman Rajinder Tikku, Rajasekharan Nair,
Karl Antao, Shatrughna Thakore, Haku Shah ,Hindol Brahmabhatt ,Walter D'Souza ,Sudhir Patwardhan ,Krishnamachari Bose ,Sudarshan Shetty ,Simeen Oshidar,
Riyas Komu, Chintan Upadhyaya, T V Santhosh, Anup Panikkar, Suryakant Lokhande ,Vivek Vilasini ,Tushar Joag ,Abhimanue V G, Subba Ghosh, Iranna Koumudi Patil, Sabu Joseph, Murali Cheeroth Harindran, T K Binoy Vargheese ,Benitha P SunojSonia
Vinod Patel, Vinod Daroz Pradeep, Dilip Tamuly, Valsan Koleri.
South-African Artists; Gabisile Nkosi Lindelani Ngwenya Sfiso Kamkame Zama Dunywa Vulindlela Nyoni Sam Nhlengthwa Vanessa Berlein Philip Briel Anthony Mutheki Hildegard Ignatius Marx Lene Pienaar Simmi Dullay Paul Lawrenson Andrew Verster Andian Walsh Cling Singh Marklyn Go vender Rani Pillai
42. Jo Davidson, between sittings,
43. Clare Sheridan, The Great Little Mahatma in
44. Amrit Rai, Premchand His Life and Times, Oxford India Paperbacks, 1991, p199.
45.रामस्वरूप चतुर्वेदी,हिन्दी साहित्य और संवेदना का विकास,लोकभारती प्रकाशन,इलाहाबाद ,प्रथम संस्करण ,1986,पृ.165-166.
46. Anu Bandopadhyaya M. K. Gandhi: Author, Journalist, Printer, Navjivan Press,
47. Shriman Narayan, ibid, p398 (Harijan16.11.1934)
48. Ibid, vol.5.pp.241-42
49. B.R.Nanda, www.mkgandhi.org
50. Quoted in Anu Bandopadhyaya, ibid.
51. विजयदेवनारायण साही, छठवाँ दशक,हिन्दुस्तानी एकेडेमी,इलाहाबाद,प्रथम संस्करण,1987,पृ.267.
52. Shriman Narayan, ibid, pp.495-96(Young India, 19.11.1931, p361).
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